Maven项目的构建与测试

 
在上一节中,我们介绍了如何使用 archetype 创建 Maven 项目,接下来我们介绍如何构建和测试这个项目。

构建项目

查看 helloMaven 项目的 pom.xml 文件,配置如下。
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>net.biancheng.www</groupId>
    <artifactId>helloMaven</artifactId>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <name>helloMaven</name>
    <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>3.8.1</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

从以上配置可知,Maven 已经添加了 Junit 作为该项目的测试框架,且 Maven 也在项目中自动生成了一个源码文件 App.java 和一个测试文件 AppTest.java 。

打开命令行窗口,跳转到 D:\maven\helloMaven 目录,执行以下 mvn 命令,对该项目进行构建。
mvn clean package

命令执行结果如下:
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] --------------------< net.biancheng.www:helloMaven >--------------------
[INFO] Building helloMaven 1.0-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] --------------------------------[ jar ]---------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Deleting D:\maven\helloMaven\target
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ helloMaven ---
[WARNING] Using platform encoding (GBK actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory D:\maven\helloMaven\src\main\resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[WARNING] File encoding has not been set, using platform encoding GBK, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to D:\maven\helloMaven\target\classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ helloMaven ---
[WARNING] Using platform encoding (GBK actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory D:\maven\helloMaven\src\test\resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[WARNING] File encoding has not been set, using platform encoding GBK, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to D:\maven\helloMaven\target\test-classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.12.4:test (default-test) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Surefire report directory: D:\maven\helloMaven\target\surefire-reports
Downloading from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/surefire/surefire-junit3/2.12.4/surefire-junit3-2.12.4.pom
Downloaded from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/surefire/surefire-junit3/2.12.4/surefire-junit3-2.12.4.pom (1.7 kB at 1.3 kB/s)
Downloading from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/surefire/surefire-junit3/2.12.4/surefire-junit3-2.12.4.jar
Downloaded from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/surefire/surefire-junit3/2.12.4/surefire-junit3-2.12.4.jar (26 kB at 51 kB/s)

-------------------------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running net.biancheng.www.AppTest
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.007 sec

Results :

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Building jar: D:\maven\helloMaven\target\helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  4.775 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2021-03-02T17:20:15+08:00
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

项目构建完成后,在该项目根目录中生成了一个名为 target 的目录,该目录包含以下内容。

maven jar
图1:target 目录

说明:
  • Maven 命令中包含了两个命令:clean 和 package,其中 clean 负责清理 target 目录,package 负责将项目构建并打包输出为 jar 文件。
  • classes:源代码编译后存放在该目录中。
  • test-classes:测试源代码编译后并存放在该目录中。
  • surefire-reports:Maven 运行测试用例生成的测试报告存放在该目录中。
  • helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar:Maven 对项目进行打包生成的 jar 文件。

打开命令控制台,跳转到 D:\maven\helloMaven\target\classes 目录,执行 Java 命令
java net.biancheng.www.App

执行结果如下。
Hello World!

测试项目

下面我们介绍如何在 Maven 项目中添加其他的 Java 文件,并进行测试。

打开 D:\maven\helloMaven\src\main\java\net\biancheng\www 文件夹,在其中创建一个名为  Util.java 的文件。
package net.biancheng.www;

/**
* Maven 项目中添加的自定义java类
*
* @author 编程帮 www.biancheng.net
*/
public class Util {
    public static void printMessage(String message) {
        System.out.println(message);
    }
}

更新 App 类,调用 Util 类中的 printMessage() 方法,代码如下。
package net.biancheng.www;

/**
* @author 编程帮 www.biancheng.net
*/
public class App {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Util.printMessage("编程帮欢迎您,网址:www.biancheng.net");
    }
}

打开命令行窗口,跳转到 D:\maven\helloMaven 目录,并执行如下 Maven 命令,对项目进行编译。
mvn clean compile                                                                                  

命令执行结果如下。
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] --------------------< net.biancheng.www:helloMaven >--------------------
[INFO] Building helloMaven 1.0-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] --------------------------------[ jar ]---------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Deleting D:\maven\helloMaven\target
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ helloMaven ---
[WARNING] Using platform encoding (GBK actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory D:\maven\helloMaven\src\main\resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[WARNING] File encoding has not been set, using platform encoding GBK, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] Compiling 2 source files to D:\maven\helloMaven\target\classes
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  0.853 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2021-03-03T09:26:29+08:00
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

编译成功后,跳转到 D:\maven\helloMaven\target\classes 目录下,执行以下 Java 命令。
java  net.biancheng.www.App                                                                                    

执行结果如下。
编程帮欢迎您,网址:www.biancheng.net

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