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使用建造者模式构建动态SQL语句

本节来看一个实战案例,这个案例参考了开源框架 JPA 的 SQL 构造模式。

实际应用中,在构造 SQL 查询条件的时候,需要根据不同的条件来拼接 SQL 字符串。如果查询条件复杂,SQL 拼接的过程也会变得非常复杂,从而给代码维护带来非常大的困难。

下面我们用建造者类 QueryRuleSqlBuilder 将复杂的 SQL 构造过程进行封装,用 QueryRule 对象专门保存 SQL 查询时的条件,最后根据查询条件,自动生成 SQL 语句。

首先创建 QueryRule 类,代码如下。
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

/**
* QueryRule 主要功能用于构造查询条件
*/
public final class QueryRule implements Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    public static final int ASC_ORDER = 101;
    public static final int DESC_ORDER = 102;
    public static final int LIKE = 1;
    public static final int IN = 2;
    public static final int NOTIN = 3;
    public static final int BETWEEN = 4;
    public static final int EQ = 5;
    public static final int NOTEQ = 6;
    public static final int GT = 7;
    public static final int GE = 8;
    public static final int LT = 9;
    public static final int LE = 10;
    public static final int ISNULL = 11;
    public static final int ISNOTNULL = 12;
    public static final int ISEMPTY = 13;
    public static final int ISNOTEMPTY = 14;
    public static final int AND = 201;
    public static final int OR = 202;
    private List<Rule> ruleList = new ArrayList<Rule>();
    private List<QueryRule> queryRuleList = new ArrayList<QueryRule>();
    private String propertyName;

    private QueryRule() {
    }

    private QueryRule(String propertyName) {
        this.propertyName = propertyName;
    }

    public static QueryRule getInstance() {
        return new QueryRule();
    }

    /**
     * 添加升序规则
     *
     * @param propertyName
     * @return
     */
    public QueryRule addAscOrder(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ASC_ORDER, propertyName));
        return this;
    }

    /**
     * 添加降序规则
     *
     * @param propertyName
     */
    public QueryRule addDescOrder(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(DESC_ORDER, propertyName));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andIsNull(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISNULL, propertyName).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andIsNotNull(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISNOTNULL, propertyName).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andIsEmpty(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISEMPTY, propertyName).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andIsNotEmpty(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISNOTEMPTY, propertyName).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andLike(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(LIKE, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(EQ, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andBetween(String propertyName, Object... values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(BETWEEN, propertyName, values).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andIn(String propertyName, List<Object> values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(IN, propertyName, new Object[]{values}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andIn(String propertyName, Object... values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(IN, propertyName, values).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andNotIn(String propertyName, List<Object> values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(NOTIN, propertyName, new Object[]{values}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orNotIn(String propertyName, Object... values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(NOTIN, propertyName, values).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andNotEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(NOTEQ, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andGreaterThan(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(GT, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andGreaterEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(GE, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andLessThan(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(LT, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule andLessEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(LE, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(AND));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orIsNull(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISNULL, propertyName).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orIsNotNull(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISNOTNULL, propertyName).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orIsEmpty(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISEMPTY, propertyName).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orIsNotEmpty(String propertyName) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(ISNOTEMPTY, propertyName).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orLike(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(LIKE, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(EQ, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orBetween(String propertyName, Object... values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(BETWEEN, propertyName, values).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orIn(String propertyName, List<Object> values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(IN, propertyName, new Object[]{values}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orIn(String propertyName, Object... values) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(IN, propertyName, values).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orNotEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(NOTEQ, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orGreaterThan(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(GT, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orGreaterEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(GE, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orLessThan(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(LT, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public QueryRule orLessEqual(String propertyName, Object value) {
        this.ruleList.add(new Rule(LE, propertyName, new Object[]{value}).setAndOr(OR));
        return this;
    }

    public List<Rule> getRuleList() {
        return this.ruleList;
    }

    public List<QueryRule> getQueryRuleList() {
        return this.queryRuleList;
    }

    public String getPropertyName() {
        return this.propertyName;
    }

    protected class Rule implements Serializable {
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
        private int type;    //规则的类型
        private String property_name;
        private Object[] values;
        private int andOr = AND;

        public Rule(int paramInt, String paramString) {
            this.property_name = paramString;
            this.type = paramInt;
        }

        public Rule(int paramInt, String paramString,
                    Object[] paramArrayOfObject) {
            this.property_name = paramString;
            this.values = paramArrayOfObject;
            this.type = paramInt;
        }

        public Rule setAndOr(int andOr) {
            this.andOr = andOr;
            return this;
        }

        public int getAndOr() {
            return this.andOr;
        }

        public Object[] getValues() {
            return this.values;
        }

        public int getType() {
            return this.type;
        }

        public String getPropertyName() {
            return this.property_name;
        }
    }
}
然后创建 QueryRuleSqlBuilder 类,代码如下:
import builder.QueryRule.Rule;
import org.apache.commons.lang3.ArrayUtils;
import org.springframework.util.StringUtils;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;


/**
* 根据QueryRule自动构建sql语句
*/
public class QueryRuleSqlBuilder {
    private int CURR_INDEX = 0; //记录参数所在的位置
    private List<String> properties; //保存列名列表
    private List<Object> values; //保存参数值列表
    private List<Order> orders; //保存排序规则列表

    private String whereSql = "";
    private String orderSql = "";
    private Object[] valueArr = new Object[]{};
    private Map<Object, Object> valueMap = new HashMap<Object, Object>();

    /**
     * 或得查询条件
     *
     * @return
     */
    private String getWhereSql() {
        return this.whereSql;
    }

    /**
     * 获得排序条件
     *
     * @return
     */
    private String getOrderSql() {
        return this.orderSql;
    }

    /**
     * 获得参数值列表
     *
     * @return
     */
    public Object[] getValues() {
        return this.valueArr;
    }

    /**
     * 获取参数列表
     *
     * @return
     */
    private Map<Object, Object> getValueMap() {
        return this.valueMap;
    }

    /**
     * 创建SQL构造器
     *
     * @param queryRule
     */
    public QueryRuleSqlBuilder(QueryRule queryRule) {
        CURR_INDEX = 0;
        properties = new ArrayList<String>();
        values = new ArrayList<Object>();
        orders = new ArrayList<Order>();
        for (QueryRule.Rule rule : queryRule.getRuleList()) {
            switch (rule.getType()) {
                case QueryRule.BETWEEN:
                    processBetween(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.EQ:
                    processEqual(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.LIKE:
                    processLike(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.NOTEQ:
                    processNotEqual(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.GT:
                    processGreaterThen(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.GE:
                    processGreaterEqual(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.LT:
                    processLessThen(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.LE:
                    processLessEqual(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.IN:
                    processIN(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.NOTIN:
                    processNotIN(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.ISNULL:
                    processIsNull(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.ISNOTNULL:
                    processIsNotNull(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.ISEMPTY:
                    processIsEmpty(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.ISNOTEMPTY:
                    processIsNotEmpty(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.ASC_ORDER:
                    processOrder(rule);
                    break;
                case QueryRule.DESC_ORDER:
                    processOrder(rule);
                    break;
                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("type " + rule.getType() + " not supported.");
            }
        }
        //拼装where语句
        appendWhereSql();
        //拼装排序语句
        appendOrderSql();
        //拼装参数值
        appendValues();
    }


    /**
     * 去掉order
     *
     * @param sql
     * @return
     */
    private String removeOrders(String sql) {
        Pattern p = Pattern.compile("order\\s*by[\\w|\\W|\\s|\\S]*", Pattern.CASE_INSENSITIVE);
        Matcher m = p.matcher(sql);
        StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
        while (m.find()) {
            m.appendReplacement(sb, "");
        }
        m.appendTail(sb);
        return sb.toString();
    }

    /**
     * 去掉select
     *
     * @param sql
     * @return
     */
    private String removeSelect(String sql) {
        if (sql.toLowerCase().matches("from\\s+")) {
            int beginPos = sql.toLowerCase().indexOf("from");
            return sql.substring(beginPos);
        } else {
            return sql;
        }
    }

    /**
     * 处理like
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processLike(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        Object obj = rule.getValues()[0];

        if (obj != null) {
            String value = obj.toString();
            if (!StringUtils.isEmpty(value)) {
                value = value.replace('*', '%');
                obj = value;
            }
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "like", "%" + rule.getValues()[0] + "%");
    }

    /**
     * 处理between
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processBetween(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if ((ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues()))
                || (rule.getValues().length < 2)) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "", "between", rule.getValues()[0], "and");
        add(0, "", "", "", rule.getValues()[1], "");
    }

    /**
     * 处理 =
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processEqual(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "=", rule.getValues()[0]);
    }

    /**
     * 处理 <>
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processNotEqual(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "<>", rule.getValues()[0]);
    }

    /**
     * 处理 >
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processGreaterThen(
            QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), ">", rule.getValues()[0]);
    }

    /**
     * 处理>=
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processGreaterEqual(
            QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), ">=", rule.getValues()[0]);
    }

    /**
     * 处理<
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processLessThen(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "<", rule.getValues()[0]);
    }

    /**
     * 处理<=
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processLessEqual(
            QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "<=", rule.getValues()[0]);
    }

    /**
     * 处理  is null
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processIsNull(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "is null", null);
    }

    /**
     * 处理 is not null
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processIsNotNull(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "is not null", null);
    }

    /**
     * 处理  <>''
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processIsNotEmpty(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "<>", "''");
    }

    /**
     * 处理 =''
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processIsEmpty(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "=", "''");
    }


    /**
     * 处理in和not in
     *
     * @param rule
     * @param name
     */
    private void inAndNotIn(QueryRule.Rule rule, String name) {
        if (ArrayUtils.isEmpty(rule.getValues())) {
            return;
        }
        if ((rule.getValues().length == 1) && (rule.getValues()[0] != null)
                && (rule.getValues()[0] instanceof List)) {
            List<Object> list = (List) rule.getValues()[0];

            if ((list != null) && (list.size() > 0)) {
                for (int i = 0; i < list.size(); i++) {
                    if (i == 0 && i == list.size() - 1) {
                        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "", name + " (", list.get(i), ")");
                    } else if (i == 0 && i < list.size() - 1) {
                        add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "", name + " (", list.get(i), "");
                    }
                    if (i > 0 && i < list.size() - 1) {
                        add(0, "", ",", "", list.get(i), "");
                    }
                    if (i == list.size() - 1 && i != 0) {
                        add(0, "", ",", "", list.get(i), ")");
                    }
                }
            }
        } else {
            Object[] list = rule.getValues();
            for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++) {
                if (i == 0 && i == list.length - 1) {
                    add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "", name + " (", list[i], ")");
                } else if (i == 0 && i < list.length - 1) {
                    add(rule.getAndOr(), rule.getPropertyName(), "", name + " (", list[i], "");
                }
                if (i > 0 && i < list.length - 1) {
                    add(0, "", ",", "", list[i], "");
                }
                if (i == list.length - 1 && i != 0) {
                    add(0, "", ",", "", list[i], ")");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * 处理 not in
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processNotIN(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        inAndNotIn(rule, "not in");
    }

    /**
     * 处理 in
     *
     * @param rule
     */
    private void processIN(QueryRule.Rule rule) {
        inAndNotIn(rule, "in");
    }

    /**
     * 处理 order by
     *
     * @param rule 查询规则
     */
    private void processOrder(Rule rule) {
        switch (rule.getType()) {
            case QueryRule.ASC_ORDER:
                // propertyName非空
                if (!StringUtils.isEmpty(rule.getPropertyName())) {
                    orders.add(Order.asc(rule.getPropertyName()));
                }
                break;
            case QueryRule.DESC_ORDER:
                // propertyName非空
                if (!StringUtils.isEmpty(rule.getPropertyName())) {
                    orders.add(Order.desc(rule.getPropertyName()));
                }
                break;
            default:
                break;
        }
    }


    /**
     * 加入到sql查询规则队列
     *
     * @param andOr and 或者 or
     * @param key   列名
     * @param split 列名与值之间的间隔
     * @param value 值
     */
    private void add(int andOr, String key, String split, Object value) {
        add(andOr, key, split, "", value, "");
    }

    /**
     * 加入到sql查询规则队列
     *
     * @param andOr  and 或则 or
     * @param key    列名
     * @param split  列名与值之间的间隔
     * @param prefix 值前缀
     * @param value  值
     * @param suffix 值后缀
     */
    private void add(int andOr, String key, String split, String prefix, Object value, String suffix) {
        String andOrStr = (0 == andOr ? "" : (QueryRule.AND == andOr ? " and " : " or "));
        properties.add(CURR_INDEX, andOrStr + key + " " + split + prefix + (null != value ? " ? " : " ") + suffix);
        if (null != value) {
            values.add(CURR_INDEX, value);
            CURR_INDEX++;
        }
    }


    /**
     * 拼装 where 语句
     */
    private void appendWhereSql() {
        StringBuffer whereSql = new StringBuffer();
        for (String p : properties) {
            whereSql.append(p);
        }
        this.whereSql = removeSelect(removeOrders(whereSql.toString()));
    }

    /**
     * 拼装排序语句
     */
    private void appendOrderSql() {
        StringBuffer orderSql = new StringBuffer();
        for (int i = 0; i < orders.size(); i++) {
            if (i > 0 && i < orders.size()) {
                orderSql.append(",");
            }
            orderSql.append(orders.get(i).toString());
        }
        this.orderSql = removeSelect(removeOrders(orderSql.toString()));
    }

    /**
     * 拼装参数值
     */
    private void appendValues() {
        Object[] val = new Object[values.size()];
        for (int i = 0; i < values.size(); i++) {
            val[i] = values.get(i);
            valueMap.put(i, values.get(i));
        }
        this.valueArr = val;
    }

    public String builder(String tableName) {
        String ws = removeFirstAnd(this.getWhereSql());
        String whereSql = ("".equals(ws) ? ws : (" where " + ws));
        String sql = "select * from " + tableName + whereSql;
        Object[] values = this.getValues();
        String orderSql = this.getOrderSql();
        orderSql = (StringUtils.isEmpty(orderSql) ? " " : (" order by " + orderSql));
        sql += orderSql;
        return sql;
    }

    private String removeFirstAnd(String sql) {
        if (StringUtils.isEmpty(sql)) {
            return sql;
        }
        return sql.trim().toLowerCase().replaceAll("^\\s*and", "") + " ";
    }

}
接着创建 Order 类,代码如下:
/**
* sql排序组件
*/
public class Order {
    private boolean ascending; //升序还是降序
    private String propertyName; //哪个字段升序,哪个字段降序

    public String toString() {
        return propertyName + ' ' + (ascending ? "asc" : "desc");
    }

    /**
     * Constructor for Order.
     */
    protected Order(String propertyName, boolean ascending) {
        this.propertyName = propertyName;
        this.ascending = ascending;
    }

    /**
     * Ascending order
     *
     * @param propertyName
     * @return Order
     */
    public static Order asc(String propertyName) {
        return new Order(propertyName, true);
    }

    /**
     * Descending order
     *
     * @param propertyName
     * @return Order
     */
    public static Order desc(String propertyName) {
        return new Order(propertyName, false);
    }

}
最后编写客户端测试代码,如下:
/**
* Created by C语言中文网.
*/
public class Test {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        QueryRule queryRule = QueryRule.getInstance();
        queryRule.addAscOrder("age")
                .andEqual("addr", "HeBei")
                .andLike("name", "C语言中文网")
                .andGreaterEqual("age", 18);
        QueryRuleSqlBuilder builder = new QueryRuleSqlBuilder(queryRule);
        System.out.println(builder.builder("t_member"));
        System.out.println("Params: " + Arrays.toString(builder.getValues()));
    }
}
这样一来,客户端代码就非常清楚了,运行结果如下所示:

select * from t_member where addr = ? and name like ? order by age asc
Params: [HeBei, %C语言中文网%]

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